IPv6 – Internet protocol suite
DHCP, DHCPv6, DNS, FTP, HTTP, IMAP, IRC, LDAP, MGCP, NNTP, BGP, NTP, POP, RPC, RTP, RTSP, RIP, SIP, SMTP, SNMP, SOCKS, SSH, Telnet, TLS/SSL, XMPP, (more)
TCP, UDP, DCCP, SCTP, RSVP, (more)
IP, IPv4, IPv6, ICMP, ICMPv6, ECN, IGMP, IPsec, (more)
ARP/InARP, NDP, OSPF, Tunnels, L2TP, PPP, Media access control Ethernet, DSL, ISDN, FDDI, (more)
v t e
Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the latest revision of the Internet Protocol (IP), the communications protocol that provides an identification and location system for computers on networks and routes traffic across the Internet. IPv6 was developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) to deal with the long-anticipated problem of IPv4 address exhaustion.
IPv6 is intended to replace IPv4, which still carries the vast majority of Internet traffic as of 2013. As of late November 2012, IPv6 traffic share was reported to be approaching 1%.
Every device on the Internet must be assigned an IP address in order to communicate with other devices. With the ever-increasing number of new devices being connected to the Internet, the need arose for more addresses than IPv4 is able to accommodate. IPv6 uses a 128-bit address, allowing 2^128, or approximately 3.4×10^38 addresses, or more than 7.9×1028 times as many as IPv4, which uses 32-bit addresses. IPv4 allows only approximately 4.3 billion addresses. The two protocols are not designed to be interoperable, complicating the transition to IPv6.
IPv6 addresses are represented as eight groups of four hexadecimal digits separated by colons, for example 2001:0db8:85a3:0042:1000:8a2e:0370:7334, but methods of abbreviation of this full notation exist.
TCP/IP provides end-to-end connectivity specifying how data should be formatted, addressed, transmitted, routed and received at the destination. It has four abstraction layers which are used to sort all related protocols according to the scope of networking involved.
From lowest to highest, the layers are:
The link layer contains communication technologies for a single network segment (link) of a local area network.
The internet layer (IP) connects independent networks, thus establishing internetworking.
The transport layer handles host-to-host communication.
The application layer contains all protocols for specific data communications services on a process-to-process level. For example, the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) specifies the web browser communication with a web server.
DHCP: (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol):
The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a network protocol used to configure devices that are connected to a network (known as hosts) so they can communicate on that network using the Internet Protocol (IP). It involves clients and a server operating in a client-server model.
One common example of its use is in a typical personal home local area network (LAN). In this residential gateway example, the server is a router while the clients are hosts (e.g. personal computers, smart phones, printers, etc.). The router receives the configuration information through a modem from an internet service provider, which also operates DHCP servers with this router as one of the clients. The clients request configuration settings using the DHCP protocol such as an IP address, a default route and one or more DNS server addresses. Once the client implements these settings, the host is able to communicate on that internet. DHCP provide IP address automatically.
The DHCP server maintains a database of available IP addresses and configuration information. When the server receives a request from a client, the DHCP server determines the network to which the DHCP client is connected, and then allocates an IP address or prefix that is appropriate for the client, and sends configuration information appropriate for that client. DHCP servers typically grant IP addresses to clients only for a limited interval. DHCP clients are responsible for renewing their IP address before that interval has expired, and must stop using the address once the interval has expired, if they have not been able to renew it.
DHCP is used for IPv4 and IPv6. While both versions serve the same purpose, the details of the protocol for IPv4 and IPv6 are sufficiently different that they may be considered separate protocols.
Hosts that do not use DHCP for address configuration may still use it to obtain other configuration information. Alternatively, IPv6 hosts may use stateless address autoconfiguration. IPv4 hosts may use link-local addressing to achieve limited local connectivity.